1. What is vegetal chitosan?
Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1→4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit).
Chitosan, sometimes known as deacetylated chitin, is a natural polycationic linear polysaccharide derived from partial deacetylation of chitin. Chitin is the structural element in the exoskeleton of insects, crustaceans (mainly shrimps and crabs shell), and cell walls of fungi (oyster mushroom, agaricus bisprous and aspergillus niger), and also is the second most abundant natural polysaccharide after cellulose.
Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide prepared of fungal origin, is initially extracted and purified from reliable and abundant food or biotechnological fungal sources such as Agaricus bisporus or Aspergillus niger.
Chitosan is obtained by hydrolysis of a chitin-rich extract. Chitin is a polysaccharide composed of several N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units interconnected by ß→(1.4) type linkages.
Chitosan is composed of glucosamine sugar units (deacetylated units) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units (acetylated units) interconnected by ß→(1.4) type linkages.
Chitosan has been widely used in various fields, including wine, pharmaceuticals, dietary supplement, medicine, agriculture, and food industries, due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and non-toxicity. In recent years, researchers have investigated the use of vegetal chitosan, which is derived from fungal or plant sources, as a sustainable alternative for use in wine applications.
2. What are the advantages of vegetal chitosan?
Vegetal chitosan, also known as fungal chitosan or mycelium chitosan, is a type of chitosan derived from the cell walls of fungi (mushroom and aspergillu niger). It has several advantages over traditional chitosan derived from shellfish, including:
- 1. Vegan and vegetarian-friendly: Vegetal chitosan is an excellent alternative for individuals who avoid animal-based products, such as those who follow a vegan or vegetarian lifestyle.
- 2. Allergen-free: Traditional chitosan is derived from shellfish, which can cause allergic reactions in some people. Vegetal chitosan does not contain any shellfish-derived ingredients, making it an allergen-free option.
- 3. Purer: Vegetal chitosan is often considered to be purer than traditional chitosan because it is derived from a single source, whereas traditional chitosan can be contaminated with other shellfish-related substances.
- 4. Better solubility: Vegetal chitosan is more soluble than traditional chitosan, which makes it easier to incorporate into various applications such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, wine and food.
- 5. Improved bioavailability: Some studies have suggested that vegetal chitosan has a higher bioavailability compared to traditional chitosan, which means that it can be absorbed and utilized more effectively by the body.
Overall, vegetal chitosan offers several advantages over traditional chitosan, making it an attractive alternative for individuals and industries looking for a vegan, allergen-free, and more effective chitosan source.
3. What are the benefits of vegetal chitosan in wine application?
Vegetal chitosan has been shown to have several benefits when used in winemaking. It can improve the clarity and stability of wine, as well as reduce the levels of unwanted compounds and off-flavors. Vegetal chitosan can also act as a natural preservative, which can extend the shelf life of wine and reduce the need for synthetic additives.
(1) Vegetal chitosan can remove undesirable compounds in wine
One of the main advantages of vegetal chitosan is its ability to bind with and remove undesirable compounds, such as proteins, tannins, and phenolics, from wine.
This can help to reduce the risk of haze formation and improve the clarity and brightness of the wine. Moreover, vegetal chitosan can help to reduce the levels of sulfites, which are commonly used as preservatives in wine and can cause allergic reactions in some individuals.
(2) Vegetal chitosan can improve stability of wine
Vegetal chitosan can also improve the stability of wine by reducing the risk of precipitation and sedimentation. This can help to prevent the loss of flavor and aroma compounds and ensure the quality of the wine over time. Moreover, vegetal chitosan can act as a natural antioxidant, which can help to protect against oxidative damage and maintain the freshness and flavor of the wine.
(3) Vegetal Chitosan can be as fining stabilizing agent & eliminating Brettanomyces
It is used as a fining agent in the treatment of musts for flotation clarification to reduce cloudiness and the content of unstable colloids.
It is also used for stabilizing wines. This polymer actually helps eliminate undesirable micro-organisms such as Brettanomyces.
(4) Vegetal chitosan can promote sustainability & reduce environmental impact
Furthermore, the use of vegetal chitosan in winemaking promotes sustainability and reduces the environmental impact of wine production. Unlike animal-derived chitosan, which is obtained from crustacean shells and can contribute to waste and pollution, vegetal chitosan is derived from sustainable and renewable sources, such as fungi and plants.
Moreover, vegetal chitosan is biodegradable and does not accumulate in the environment, making it a safe and sustainable solution for winemaking.
The use of vegetal chitosan in wine applications has been extensively studied, and the results have shown its effectiveness and safety.
(5) Vegetal chitosan has no affect taste aroma or color of wine
Vegetal chitosan has been approved by regulatory agencies, such as the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration, as a safe and effective additive in winemaking. Moreover, vegetal chitosan has been shown to have no adverse effects on the sensory properties of wine, as it does not affect the taste, aroma, or color of the wine.
In conclusion, vegetal chitosan is an effective and sustainable solution for wine applications. Its unique properties, such as haze removal, stability enhancement, and natural preservation, make it an attractive alternative to animal-derived additives.
Moreover, the use of vegetal chitosan promotes sustainability and reduces the environmental impact of wine production. Therefore, it is expected that the use of vegetal chitosan will continue to grow in the wine industry as a safe and sustainable additive.
4. What is the flowchart of vegetal chitosan (mushroom & aspergillus niger sourced chitosan)?
The production process of plant chitosan is mainly obtained by extracting raw materials (mushrooms, Aspergillus niger), deproteinizing with dilute acid or alkali, deacetylating, drying, etc.
Here is a simplified flowchart of the production process of vegetal chitosan for your reference.
5. What is the dosage of vegetal chitosan in wine, beverage, alcoholic?
The dosage of vegetal chitosan in wine, beverages, and alcohol varies depending on the specific product and the intended use.
In wine, vegetal chitosan is often used as a fining agent to clarify the wine by removing unwanted particles such as sediment and haze. The dosage of vegetal chitosan in wine can vary depending on the wine’s characteristics and the desired level of clarification. Typically, a dosage of 5 to 100 grams per hectoliter (100 liters) of wine is used, but it is important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions and to conduct trials before use to determine the optimal dosage.
In beverages such as juices, ciders and soft drinks, vegetal chitosan is often used as a stabilizer and thickener. The dosage of vegetal chitosan in these beverages can vary depending on the specific product and the desired texture and stability. In general, a dosage of 10 grams per hectoliter (100 liters) is used, but it is also important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions and to conduct trials before use to determine the optimal dosage.
In alcoholic drinks such as beer and spirits, vegetal chitosan can be used as a clarifying agent to remove unwanted particles and haze. The dosage of vegetal chitosan in these drinks can vary depending on the specific product and the desired level of clarification. Typically, a dosage of 10 to 100 grams per hectoliter of beer is used, but it is important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions and to conduct trials before use to determine the optimal dosage.
It’s important to note that the dosage of vegetal chitosan can vary depending on the specific product and the desired results, and it’s always recommended to consult the manufacturer’s instructions and conduct trials before use to determine the optimal dosage for your particular application.
6. More information about vegetal chitosan to control Brettanomyces Bruxellensis
(1) what is Brettanomyces Bruxellensis?
In the wine industry, B. bruxellensis is generally considered a spoilage yeast and it and other members of the genus are often referred to as Brettanomyces (“brett”). Its metabolic products can impart “sweaty saddle leather”, “barnyard”, “burnt plastic” or “band-aid” aromas to wine. Some winemakers in France, and occasionally elsewhere, consider it a desirable addition to wine, e.g., in Château de Beaucastel, but New World vintners generally consider it a defect. Some authorities consider brett to be responsible for 90% of the spoilage problems in premium red wines.
This undesirable yeast is able to develop during aging under difficult conditions. Development of this microorganism usually results in the production of off-flavors, such as ethylphenols and vinylphenols.
In fact, the sensory properties of these molecules (mousiness, animal, horsy, barnyard, smoky, spicy, burnt plastic, or medicinal) are often described as the Brett character.
It is also responsible for the production of other negative aromatic compounds such as isovaleric acid (known to be related to ununpleasant cheesy aroma) and tetrahydropyridines, responsible for mousy taint.
Nowadays at an international scale, volumes concerned by this defect become significant, and Brettanomyces bruxellensis is considered as the major microbial cause for wine spoilage worldwide, causing significant economic losses.
Brettanomyces bruxellensis is well adapted to winemaking conditions since it is low pH and ethanol tolerant, facultatively anaerobic, and it can assimilate carbon sources alternative to hexoses.
Therefore, Brettanomyces bruxellensis and the conse-quences of its development in wines are a continuous threat for wine quality, and how to eliminate and control brettanomyces bruxellensis is one important key subject.
(2) Research about how vegetal chitosan control Brettanomyces Bruxellensis
In the past years, from many actors in wine industry, it was verified that chitosan of fungal origin was introduced as a new tool to control Brettanomyces bruxellensis in the context of winemaking.
Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of two repeating units [D-glucosamine units (GlcN) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GLcNAc) units] randomly distributed along the polymer chain and linked by β(1-4)-bonds.
Recent studies have showed the impact of a fungal origin chitosan application on wines contaminated with Brettanomyces bruxellensis, leading to the elimination of Brettanomyces bruxellensis cells.
In these studies, the chitosan preparation was added, the wine racked off after 10 days and the efficiency of the treatment was evaluated in a short delay after the treatment.
This study focused on the evaluation of the impact of different addition protocols of an enological chitosan preparation on Brettanomyces bruxellensis population evolution and volatile phenols content along the aging, up to 9 months.
Meanwhile, recent other studies have showed the impact of chitosan application 9 on wines contaminated with Brettanomyces bruxellensis, leading to the elimination of Brettanomyces bruxellensis cells, even at high levels of populations up to 10 5 -10 6CFU/mL.
Due to the necessity to control wine microbiological stability during the period of aging in barrels, our research focuses on the application of an enological chitosan preparation in order to prevent wine from Brettanomyces bruxellensis contamination along the aging period at both experimental winery- and winery-scale.
Moreover, since previous studies have reported that the management of an efficient malolactic fermentation (MLF) can help to preserve the quality of wine by hampering the development of Brettanomyces yeast, the application of chitosan treatments in this work has been carried out both on wines that underwent rapid MLF (by yeast-bacteria co-inoculation) and on wines that underwent slow MLF (carried out by spontaneous microflora).
The results confirm the interest of fungal origin chitosan as a preventive tool to control Brettanomyces bruxellensis in the context of wine aging Brettanomyces bruxellensis and the consequences of its development in wines are a continuous threat for wine quality.
7. In summary of vegetal chitosan in wine application
In summary, chitosan is a biopolymer derived from chitin, a natural polymer found in crustacean shells. Vegetal chitosan, on the other hand, is a type of chitosan produced from fungal mycelium or other plant sources: mushroom and aspergillus niger.
In wine applications, vegetal chitosan can be used as a fining agent. Fining agents are substances that are added to wine to remove unwanted impurities, such as sediment, haze, or off-flavors, and improve the clarity and stability of the wine.
The benefits of using vegetal chitosan as a fining agent in wine include:
- 1. Removal of impurities: Vegetal chitosan can elimination of Brettanomyces bruxellensis cells and remove suspended particles, including yeast cells, bacteria, and tannins, that can cause haze or sediment in the wine.
- 2. Clarification: By removing these impurities, vegetal chitosan can clarify the wine, improving its appearance.
- 3. Stabilization: Vegetal chitosan can help stabilize the wine by binding with and removing compounds that can cause wine spoilage, such as sulfur dioxide, metals, and oxidized phenols.
- 4. Reduced allergenicity: Unlike animal-based chitosan, vegetal chitosan is free from allergens and can be used by vegetarians and people with shellfish allergies.
Overall, vegetal chitosan can be an effective and sustainable alternative to animal-based fining agents in the wine industry.