Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12

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1.What is Vitamin B12?

Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is the only vitamin that contains metal elements. Vitamin B12 in nature is synthesized by microorganisms, and higher animals and plants cannot make vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 is the only vitamin that requires an intestinal secretion (endogenous factor) to help it be absorbed. Some people suffer from gastrointestinal abnormalities and lack of such endogenous factors, even if the source of the diet is sufficient, they will suffer from pernicious anemia. There is essentially no vitamin B12 in plant foods. It stays in the intestines for a long time and takes about three hours (most water-soluble vitamins take only a few seconds) to be absorbed.

Vitamin B12 is the latest found in B vitamins to date. Vitamin B12 is a polycyclic compound containing trivalent cobalt, and the four reduced pyrrole rings are joined together to form one porphyrin macrocycle (similar to porphyrin), which is the core of vitamin B12 molecule. Therefore, compounds containing such a ring are referred to as porphyrins.


The main physiological function of vitamin B12 is to participate in the production of bone marrow red blood cells to prevent pernicious anemia; to prevent damage to brain nerves.


The industrial manufacture of vitamin B12 is made by microbial fermentation.
Streptomyces griseus has been a source of vitamin B12 for many years. Usually from Pseudomonas denitrificans and Propionibacterium shermanii. They generally need to be cultured under special conditions to increase the yield.

2.Two types of Vitamin 12:
Vitamin B12 is light red needle-like crystal, soluble in water and ethanol. It is most stable under mild acid conditions of pH 4.5-5.0. It is decomposed by strong acid (pH<2) or alkaline solution. It can be destroyed to some extent when exposed to heat. However, the short-term high-temperature disinfection loss is small, and it is easily destroyed by strong light or ultraviolet light.


There are two types of vitamin B12: Methylcobalamin and Cyanocobalamin (cyanocobalamin, cobalamin, one less methyl).

Glutamate and methylglutamine are two coenzyme forms of B12. Cobalt ions are attached to N-3 of 5,6-2 methylphenylimidazole above the plane of the cobalt ruthenium ring and are attached to C5′ of 5′-deoxyadenosine below the plane. The general application of B12, coupled with cobalt ions is CN, known as cyanocobalamin, which is a green crystal.


Methyl B12 is formed by the conversion of vitamin B12, which is the only vitamin in the body that contains metal element cobalt, also known as cobalamin.

Methyl B12 is a coenzyme of methyltransferase (methionine, methionine synthase), which produces S-adenosylmethionine (S-adenosylmethionine), which is important in the body. a methyl donor that participates in the methylation of approximately 50 substances,

Includes methylation of DNA and RNA. The methyl group of S-adenosylmethionine is provided by N4-methyl-FH4, and therefore, N4-methyl-FH4 can be regarded as an indirect donor of methyl groups in the body.

When vitamin B12 is deficient, the methyl donor of S-adenosylmethionine cannot be synthesized, which affects the methylation reaction in the body. Meanwhile, the methionine synthetase leads to N5-methyl-FH4 due to the lack of coenzyme. The base cannot be transferred, resulting in reduced regeneration of tetrahydrofolate, unable to efficiently transport one carbon unit, affecting the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, and ultimately leading to nucleic acid synthesis disorders and affecting cell division. Therefore, the lack of B12 will also lead to megaloblastic anemia.


3.Specifications of Vitamin B12

Characters/appearance Dark red,crystalline powder or dark red crystals
Identification A: A361nm/A278nm:1.70-1.90 A361nm/A550nm:3.15-3.40
B: Cobalt:Meets USP requirements
C: HPLC:The retention time of the major peak of the sample solution corresponds to that of the standard solution
Loss on drying ≤10%
Assay 97–102%
Related substances Total impurities≤3.0%
Any other impurity(Include 50-cyanocobalamin;32-cyanocobalamin)≤5.0%
Residual solvent Acetone≤5000 ppm
Microbiological quality

Total Plate Count Yeast & Mold

<1000cfu/g <100cfu/g


4.Benefits & Applications of Vitamin B12

  • Food Industry: food additive, vitamin B12 can be used as a food coloring agent: such as ham, sausage, ice cream, fish sauce.
  • Medical Industry:

1. Promote methyl transfer
2. Promote the development and maturation of red blood cells, so that the body hematopoietic function is in a normal state, prevent pernicious anemia; maintain nervous system health
3. In the form of coenzyme, can increase the utilization of folic acid, promote the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins
4. It has the function of activating amino acids and promoting the biosynthesis of nucleic acids, which can promote the synthesis of proteins, which plays an important role in the growth and development of infants and young children.
5. Metabolize fatty acids, so that fat, carbohydrates, protein are properly used by the body
6. Eliminate irritability, focus, enhance memory and balance
7. It is an indispensable vitamin for the nervous system function and participates in the formation of a lipoprotein in nerve tissue.

  • Pharmaceuticals Industry:

1.One is to increase the utilization of folic acid, synthesize methionine (synthesized from homocysteine) and choline together with folic acid, and synthesize cyanocobalamin-based precursors such as methylcobalamin in the process of producing purines and pyrimidines. Coenzyme B12 is involved in the methylation process of many important compounds. When vitamin B12 is deficient, the activity of transferring methyl groups from methyltetrahydrofolate is reduced, making folic acid into an unusable form, leading to folic acid deficiency.

2.The second is to maintain the metabolism and function of the myelin sheath. In the absence of vitamin B12, it can cause neurological disorders, spinal cord degeneration, and can cause severe mental symptoms. Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause peripheral neuritis. The early manifestations of a child’s lack of vitamin B12 are mood abnormalities, sluggish expression, unresponsiveness, and eventually anemia.

3.The third is to promote the development and maturation of red blood cells. Conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA is involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, where succinyl-CoA is involved in the synthesis of heme.
Fourth, vitamin B12 is also involved in the synthesis of deoxynucleic acid (DNA), the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins, and the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins.

  • For Health:
    1 for the treatment and prevention of vitamin B12 deficiency.
    2 for gastric resection or malabsorption syndrome, vitamin B12 deficiency causes anemia prevention.
    3 used to supplement the demand for vitamin B12 caused by consumptive diseases, hyperthyroidism, pregnancy, breastfeeding, etc.
    4 nutritional and pregnancy anemia.
    5 extensive segmental head tsutsugamushi disease anemia.
    6 liver disorders anemia.
    7 Radioactive leukopenia.
    8 nerve pain, muscle pain, joint pain.
    9 peripheral neuritis, peripheral nerve paralysis.
    10 myelitis, spinal degeneration.
  • Cosmetics Industry:


Vitamin B12 can be used in cosmetics, soap, toothpaste, etc., can also be used in toilets, refrigerators, oral and other deodorant, eliminating the smell of sulfides and aldehydes.

Vitamin B12 is generally called hematopoietic vitamin, which has the superior effect of skin regeneration. Cell regeneration and hematopoiesis are indispensable, and it is an important component to promote human metabolism.

Vitamin B12 is the latest vitamin. It is the last found of all vitamins. The molecular composition is the most complicated. The vitamin B12 content in the human body will gradually decrease with the increase of age, especially for women, the physiological structure will decrease faster.

Easily solve the following skin problems:
* The skin is tired, dull, dry and so on;
* Significantly diminishes fine lines and wrinkles caused by increased age;
* Repair skin redness, peeling and pain caused by dryness after sun exposure, dry and cold in autumn and winter;
* scars of acne scars, scars of mosquito bites, scars of burns and burns;
* Use after the whole surgery to avoid leaving scars.


  • Feed Industry:


Vitamin B12 is an indispensable micronutrient for the growth of the body. Most animal plants do not contain vitamin B12 in the plant feed. On the one hand, the animal is synthesized by microorganisms in the stomach and intestines, and on the other hand, it is added by the outside world. In order to meet the needs of animal vitamins, vitamin supplements must be added.

The lack of vitamin B12 in non-ruminants such as pigs and chickens is mainly due to stagnant growth and development, and a small number of pigs may have mild normal red blood cell anemia. In addition, the hatching rate of the chicken and the reproductive rate of the pig can be lowered. Clinical symptoms of deficiency include loss of appetite, stagnant growth, simple anemia, and severe neurological symptoms.

Feed vitamin B12 can promote the growth and development of poultry, especially young birds.
Vitamin B12 can be use on:
1 Porcine, chicken growth dysplasia and anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency;
2 Localized wasting disease in cattle and sheep in the cobalt-deficient area;
3 Non-specific treatment of neuritis, neuralgia, etc.;
4 Improve the utilization of feed protein;
5 Raising of economic animals;
6 Treatment of fish eggs or fry with B12 solution can improve the tolerance of fish to toxic substances such as benzene and heavy metals in water.

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